Stainless Steel 310, 310L, 310H, 310S,
Stainless steel 310 is an austenitic steel with excellent high-temperature performance.
It has high chromium and medium nickel content, up to 26% and 22% respectively, which make it highly resistant oxidation and sulfidation at high temperatures. It maintains both strength and toughness at elevated temperatures and offers good performance at cryogenic temperatures.
It continues to perform well in intermittent temperatures up to 1035oC and in continuous use up to 1150oC.
It is generally used in environments where the working temperatures exceed 800oC where 304H and 321 become inappropriate.
310's high chromium and nickel content make it suitable for use in a wide range of high-temperature applications.
Typical uses include:
- Furnace components
- Burner components
- Heat Exchanges
- Heat treatment baskets
- Heat treatment jigs
- Welding wire and electrodes
The high Chromium content also makes it resistant to salt water corrosion giving it a performance in the marine environment similar to 316
The high chromium content, which is designed to produce excellent high-temperature performance, also gives it excellent resistance to saltwater corrosion similar to that of 316.
It also displays good resistance to oxidising and carburising conditions. While carburising steel in many circumstances can be a useful treatment, carburising 310 has been shown to make it very brittle.
310 is resistant to fuming nitric acid at ambient temperatures and fused nitrates up to 325oC.
310 resists oxidation well in intermittent exposure to temperatures up to 1040oC and in continuous exposure to temperatures to 1150oC. It has good resistance to thermal fatigue from cyclic heating.
It also has good resistance to corrosion where it meets sulphur dioxide at elevated temperatures.
While it performs well at higher temperatures but is not recommended for continuous use in the temperature range 425-860oC and is prone to sigma phase embrittlement in the temperature range 650-900oC
310 has good welding characteristics and 310S is frequently specified electrodes for fusion welding.
The higher carbon content of 310, 310H and 310S result in them being prone to sensitisation.
Stress Corrosion Cracking
Austenitic stainless steels can be subject to stress corrosion cracking but 310 is generally more resistant than either 304 or 316.
In the range of 425oC to 860oC carbide precipitation is likely and if the application is likely to be subject to aqueous corrosion this will represent a problem.
Between 650oC and 900oC sigma phase embrittlement is likely. To overcome this problem it is recommended that annealing should be done after every 1000 hours of use at temperatures above 650oC. This should be done by heating to between 1040oC and 1150oC and quenching rapidly.
The main differentiator of 310 stainless steel is its high chromium and nickel content. 316 contains 24 - 26% Chromium (Cr). and 19 - 22% Nickel (NI)
In addition a number of other chemicals may be present but these are expressed as maximum permited levels with the exception of the increased quantity of carbon required in 316H - i.e. a minimum of .04% and a maximum of 0.10%
Due to the "overlap" in carbon content it is not uncommon to find dual certification of 310S and 310H.
Converted from Rockwell B hardness.
Hardness, Rockwell B
Tensile Strength, Ultimate
Tensile Strength, Yield
at 0.2% offset
Elongation at Break
in 50 mm
Modulus of Elasticity
at 20°C (68°F); 1.16E-04 at 650°C (1200°F)
CTE, linear 20°C
from from 0-100°C
CTE, linear 250°C
at 0-315°C (32-600°F)
CTE, linear 500°C
Specific Heat Capacity
from 0-100°C (32-212°F)
at 0-100°C, 21.5 W/m°C at 500°C
The two main variants of grade 310 are the high carbon form 310H and the lower carbon form 310S. In addition, there is a third form - 310L which has a carbon component of 0.03%
310H achieves its high-temperature performance by the inclusion of up to 0.1% carbon. However, it should be noted that the specification allows for a carbon content as low as 0.04.
310L is produced with a maximum 0.015% Carbon and 0.03% Silicon producing a very stable austenite structure making it suitable for applications involving nitric acid.
The control of the production process has an effect on the austenite structure and where complex high-temperature corrosive environments are being considered careful discussion should take place to ensure the specification of the grade is as required.
Stainless 316, 316H, 316L Forms Available
- Special Sections
- Flat Bar
- Round Bar
- Hollow Bar
- i Beam
- U Channel