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Stainless Steel 410

Grade 410 is often described as the basic martensitic steel. 410 is a general purpose steel suitable for use in applications where high strength and hardness are required, and moderate corrosion resistance and moderate high-temperature performance are acceptable. It is usually supplied in hardened and tempered form.

Stainless steel 410 is a Martensitic Steel. As such it optimised for high hardness and toughness. 

It contains between 11.5% and 12.5% Chromium which gives it fairly good corrosion resistance. In addition, it contains between 0.8% and 0.15% carbon which in part accounts for its hardness.

The main contributor to its hardness is the crystalline structure it assumes when it is heated and rapidly quenched. 

The steel will generally be tempered to achieve the precise properties required - it varies in hardness from 388HB when tempered at 204oC to 225HB when tempered at 660oC. For those not familiar with degrees of hardness 316 has a hardness of  123HB Similarly, its tensile strength varies from 1310MPa to 755MPa following tempering at those temperatures.

This hardness has an impact on the steel's ductility resulting in a very brittle steel which becomes more brittle at low temperature.

It is reasonably easy to weld by all the usual techniques but care should be taken in allowing it to cool too quickly which may result in cracking. Pre-heating of the piece is the best way to avoid this.

Its corrosion resistance can be improved by careful polishing. 

Hardness 

A high level of hardness makes parts that are exposed to constant friction less susceptible to wear. The hardnesses of 410 is such that it is harder than silica which is the main constituent of sand which is responsible for much of the wear caused to moving parts. Due to its hardness it will also maintain a polished finish.

Corrosion Resistance

410 has good resistance in a dry atmosphere at moderate temperatures. It can handle mild acids and alkalies, food stuffs and hot gasses. Freshwater is also tolerated well.

It should be borne in mind that it has less resistance to corrosion than the austenitic steel

Heat Resistance

410 resists scaling - the production of an oxide layer at temperatures up to 650oC. However, it should be noted that between 400oC and 580oC there is a significant decline in its mechanical properties. 

High-Temperature Performance

410 is not suitable for use above 650oC where it experiences a significant drop in tensile strength and hardness.

Low-temperature Performance

Impact resistance declines rapidly at low temperatures

Welding

While 410 can be welded by all the usual welding methods there is a danger of cracking if the parts are not pre-heated. Post-weld annealing is also recommended and then tempering to achieve the desired mechanical properties.

Bending

Cold bending is difficult due to its high yield strength and hot bending will have adverse effects in the area of the bend.

The main constituents of 410 stainless steel - other than iron - is Chromium - 11.5% to 12.5%.

It also contains a higher percentage of carbon than most other stainless steels

In addition a number of other chemicals may be present but these are expressed as maximum permited levels with the exception of the increased quantity of carbon required in 316H - i.e. a minimum of .04% and a maximum of 0.10%

Grade CMnSiPSCr
410min.
max.
0.08
0.15
-
1.0
-
0.75
-
0.04
-
0.030
11.5
12.5

Physical Properties

 

Metric

English

Density

7.7 g/cc

0.278 lb/in³

               

Mechanical Properties

Hardness, Brinell

123

123

Converted from Rockwell B hardness.

Hardness, Knoop

138

138

Converted from Rockwell B hardness.

Hardness, Rockwell B

70

70

 

Hardness, Vickers

129

129

Converted from Rockwell B hardness.

Tensile Strength, Ultimate

505 MPa

73200 psi

 

Tensile Strength, Yield

215 MPa

31200 psi

at 0.2% offset

Elongation at Break

70 %

70 %

in 50 mm

Modulus of Elasticity

193 - 200 GPa

28000 - 29000 ksi

 

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

0.29

 

Charpy Impact

325 J

240 ft-lb

 

Shear Modulus

86 GPa

12500 ksi

 

Electrical Properties

Electrical Resistivity

5.7e-005 ohm-cm

7.2e-005 ohm-cm

at 20°C (68°F); 1.16E-04 at 650°C (1200°F)

Magnetic Permeability

1.008

1.008

at RT

Thermal Properties

CTE, linear 20°C

9.9 µm/m-°C


from from 0-100°C

CTE, linear 250°C

11.4 µm/m-°C


at 0-315°C (32-600°F)

CTE, linear 500°C

11.6 µm/m-°C


at 0-650°C

Specific Heat Capacity

460 J/kg.K

from 0-100°C (32-212°F)

Thermal Conductivity

24.9 W/m-K


at 0-100°C, 21.5 W/m°C at 500°C

Melting Point

1753 -  1803 °C


 

Stainless 410 Forms Available

  • Round Bar
  • Flat Bar
  • Plate

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